**
Here are some informal notes...
**

Introduction to SSX here.

Generalized Ohm's Law here.

Plasma basics here.

SSX scalings here and here.

length scales here.

Diffusivity here.

Taylor state lifetime here.

Some notes about beta here.

Kolmogorov notes here.

Critical balance notes here.

Notes on equation of state here.

Notes on adiabatic invariants here.

Notes on the mirror force here.

Notes on whistler waves here.

Sweet-Parker reconnection here.

Te/Ti equilibration here.

proton/Carbon equilibration here.

number of protons in a Larmor sphere here.

Resistivity here.

Plasma gun here.

RGEA here.

Particle orbits here and here.

Alpha scaling here.

Reconnection summary for JPFR here.

Simple model for electron heating here.

Generic SSX summary for PSI-Center here.

Generic SSX paragraph for undergraduate researchers here.

Boundaries for various SSX geometries for simulations here.

George Marklin's eigenmode analysis for prolate flux conserver here.

MB's US/Japan talk from 2009 on ion heating (big pdf!) here.

Astrophysical plasmas (PowerPoint!) here.

SSX yearly summaries: 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021.

** Here are some papers... ** related to reconnection and turbulence experiments at SSX...

Here's a copy of my CV.

M. Kaur and M. R. Brown, "Propagation of a nonlinear wave packet driven in a relaxed magnetohydrodynamic plasma", Journal of Plasma Physics 84, 1 (2018). here

M. Kaur, K. D. Gelber, A. D. Light, D. A. Schaffner, and M. R. Brown, "Temperature and Lifetime Measurements in the SSX Wind Tunnel", Plasma 1, 229 (2018). here

M. Kaur, L. J. Barbano, E. M. Suen-Lewis, J. E. Shrock, A. D. Light, D. A. Schaffner, M. R. Brown, S. Woodruff, and T. Meyer, "Magnetothermodynamics: Measurements of the thermodynamic properties in a relaxed magnetohydrodynamic plasma", Journal of Plasma Physics 84, 905840114 (2018). here

M. Kaur, L. J. Barbano, E. M. Suen-Lewis, J. E. Shrock, A. D. Light, M. R. Brown, D. A. Schaffner, "Measuring the equations of state in a relaxed magnetohydrodynamic plasma", Phys. Rev. E 97, 011202 (2018). here

M. R. Brown, D. A. Schaffner and P. J. Weck, "Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: observation and experiment", Physics of Plasmas 22, 055601 (2015). here

M. R. Brown and D. A. Schaffner, "SSX MHD plasma wind tunnel", J. Plasma Phys. 81, 345810302 (2015). here

P. J. Weck, D. A. Schaffner, M. R. Brown and R. T. Wicks, "Permutation entropy and statistical complexity analysis in laboratory plasmas and the solar wind", Phys. Rev. E 91, 023101 (2015). here

M. R. Brown and D. A. Schaffner, "Laboratory sources of turbulent plasma: a unique MHD plasma wind tunnel", Plasma Sources Science and Technology, invited review, 23, 063001 (2014). here

D. A. Schaffner, A. Wan, and M. R. Brown, "Observation of turbulent intermittency scaling with magnetic helicity in an MHD plasma wind tunnel", Phys. Rev. Letters 112, 165001 (2014). here

D.A. Schaffner, M. R. Brown, and V. S. Lukin. "Temporal and Spatial Turbulent Spectra of MHD Plasma and an Observation of Variance Anisotropy", Astrophysical Journal 790, 126 (2014). here

D. A Schaffner, V. S. Lukin, A. Wan, and M. R. Brown, "Turbulence analysis of an experimental flux rope plasma", Plasma Physics and Cont. Fusion 56, 064003 (2014). here

T. Gray, M. R. Brown, and D. Dandurand, "Observation of a Relaxed Plasma State in a Quasi-Infinite Cylinder", Phys. Rev. Letters 110, 085002 (2013). here

M. R. Brown, C. D. Cothran, T. Gray, C. E. Myers, and E. V. Belova, "Spectroscopic observation of simultaneous bi-directional reconnection outflows in a laboratory plasma", Physics of Plasmas 19, 080704 (2012). here

C. E. Myers, E. V. Belova, M. R. Brown, T. Gray, C. D. Cothran, and M. J. Schaffer, "Three-dimensional MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment", Physics of Plasmas (2011). here

X. Zhang, D. Dandurand, T. Gray, M. R. Brown, and V. S. Lukin, "Calibrated Cylindrical Mach Probe in a Plasma Wind Tunnel", Review of Scientific Instruments 82, 033510 (2011). here

T. Gray, M. R. Brown, C. D. Cothran, G. Marklin, M. J. Schaffer, "Stable Spheromak Formation by Merging in an Oblate Flux Conserver", Physics of Plasmas 17, 032510 (2010). here

T. Gray, V. S. Lukin, M. R. Brown, and C. D. Cothran, "Three-dimensional Reconnection and Relaxation of Merging Spheromak Plasmas", Physics of Plasmas 17, 102106 (2010). here

C. D. Cothran, M. R. Brown, T. Gray, M. J. Schaffer, G. Marklin, "Observation of a Helical Self-Organized State in a Compact Toroidal Plasma", Phys. Rev. Letters 103, 215002 (2009). here

V. H. Chaplin, M. R. Brown, D. H. Cohen, T. Gray, C. D. Cothran, "Spectroscopic Measurements of Temperature and Plasma Impurity Concentration During Magnetic Reconnection at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment", Physics of Plasmas 16, 042505 (2009). here

Y. Lin, X. Y. Wang, M. R. Brown, M. J. Schaffer, C. D. Cothran, "Modeling Swarthmore spheromak reconnection experiment using hybrid code", Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 50, 074012 (2008). here

M. R. Brown, C. D. Cothran, D. H. Cohen, J. Horwitz, V. Chaplin, "Flow Dynamics and Plasma Heating of Spheromaks in SSX", Journal of Fusion Energy 27, 16 (2008). here

M. R. Brown, C. D. Cothran, J. Fung, M. Chang, J. Horwitz, M. J. Schaffer, J. Leuer, E. V. Belova, "Dipole Trapped Spheromak in a Prolate Flux Conserver". Physics of Plasmas 13, 102503 (2006). here

C. D. Cothran, J. Fung, M. R. Brown , and M. J. Schaffer, "Fast, High Resolution Echelle Spectroscopy of a Laboratory Plasma". Review of Scientific Instruments 77, 063504 (2006). here

M. R. Brown , C. D. Cothran, and J. Fung, "Two Fluid Effects on 3D Reconnection in the SSX Experiment with Comparisons to Space Data". Physics of Plasmas 13, 056503, (2006). here

M. R. Brown, C. D. Cothran, J. Fung, M. J. Schaffer, E. V. Belova, "Novel Dipole Trapped Spheromak Configuration", Journal of Fusion Energy 26, 31 (2007). here

C. D. Cothran, J. Fung, M. R. Brown, M. J. Schaffer, E. V. Belova, "Spectroscopic Flow and Ion Temperature Studies of a Large s FRC", Journal of Fusion Energy 26, 37 (2007). here

W. H. Matthaeus, C. D. Cothran, M. Landreman, and M. R. Brown , "Fluid and Kinetic Structure of Magnetic Merging in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment". Geophysical Research Letters 32, L23104 (2005). here

C. D. Cothran, M. Landreman, M. R. Brown , and W. H. Matthaeus, "Generalized Ohm's Law in a 3D Reconnection Experiment", Geophysical Research Letters 32, L03105 (2005). here

E. V. Belova, R. C. Davidson, H. Ji, M. Yamada, C. D. Cothran, M. R. Brown , and M. J. Schaffer, "Numerical Study of the Formation, Ion Spin-up, and Nonlinear Stability Properties of Field Reversed Configurations", Nuclear Fusion 46, 162 (2006). here

M. R. Brown , C. D. Cothran, M. Landreman, D. Schlossberg, and W. H. Matthaeus, "Experimental Observation of Energetic Ions Accelerated by Three-dimensional Magnetic Reconnection Activity", Astrophysical Journal Letters 577, L63 (2002). here

H. Ji, M. R. Brown , S. C. Hsu, H. Li, and R. P. Drake "Mini-conference and related sessions on laboratory plasma astrophysics", Physics of Plasmas 11, 2976 (2004).

M. Landreman, C. D. Cothran, M. R. Brown , M. Kostora, and J. T. Slough, "Rapid Multiplexed Data Acquisition: Application to Three-dimensional Magnetic Field Measurements in a Turbulent Laboratory Plasma", Review of Scientific Instruments 74, 2361 (2003). here

C. D. Cothran, M. Landreman, W. H. Matthaeus, and M. R. Brown , "Three Dimensional Structure of Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma", Geophysical Research Letters 30, 1213 (2003). here

C. D. Cothran, A. Falk, A. Fefferman, M. Landreman, M. R. Brown , and M. J. Schaffer, "Partial and Complete Spheromak Merging at SSX: 3D Studies of Reconnection and FRC Formation", Physics of Plasmas 10, 1748 (2003). here

P. Dmitruk, W. H. Matthaeus, N. Seenu, and M. R. Brown, "Test Particle Acceleration in Three-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence", Astrophysical Journal Letters 597 , L81 (2003).

M. R. Brown, C. D. Cothran, M. Landreman, D. Schlossberg, W. H. Matthaeus, G. Qin, V. S. Lukin, and T. Gray, "Energetic Particles from Three-dimensional Magnetic Reconnection Events in SSX", Phys. Plasmas 9 , 2077 (2002). here

G. Qin, V. S. Lukin, C. D. Cothran, M. R. Brown, and W. H. Matthaeus, "Energetic Particles and Magnetohydrodynamic Activity in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment", Phys. Plasmas 8, 4816 (2001). here

V. S. Lukin, G. Qin, W. H. Matthaeus, and M. R. Brown , "Numerical Modeling of Magnetohydrodynamic Activity in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment", Phys. Plasmas 8, 1600 (2001). here

A. B. Reighard and M. R. Brown, "Turbulent Conductivity Measurements in a Spherical Liquid Sodium Flow", Phys. Rev. Letters 86 , 2794 (2001). here

M. R. Brown, "Experimental Studies of Magnetic Reconnection", Phys. Plasmas 6 , 1717 (1999). here

T. W. Kornack, P. K. Sollins, and M. R. Brown , "Experimental Observation of Correlated Magnetic Reconnection and Alfvenic Ion Jets", Phys. Rev. E 58, R36 (1998). here

C. G. R. Geddes, T. W. Kornack, and M. R. Brown , "Scaling Studies of Spheromak Formation and Equilibrium", Phys. Plasmas 5, 1027 (1998). here

** Here are some papers... ** related to experiments at Caltech...

M. R. Brown, "Experimental Evidence of Rapid Relaxation to Large Scale Structures in Turbulent Fluids: Selective Decay and Maximal Entropy", J. Plasma Physics 57 , 203 (1996). here

M. R. Brown and A. Martin, "Spheromak Experiment using Separate Guns for Formation and Sustainment", Fusion Technology 30, 300 (1996).

P. K. Loewenhardt, M. R. Brown, J. Yee, and P. M. Bellan, "Performance Characterization of the Caltech Compact Torus Injector", Rev. Sci. Instr. 66, 1050 (1995). here

M. R. Brown and P. M. Bellan, "Efficiency and Scaling of Current Drive and Refueling by Spheromak Injection into a Tokamak", N. Fusion 32 , 1125 (1992). here

M. R. Brown and P. M. Bellan, "Injection of Compact Toroids into Tokamaks for Reactor Refueling", Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1992 (Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, Wurzburg, Germany, 1992), Vol 3, IAEA, Vienna (1993), p. 475.

M. R. Brown , T. E. Sheridan, and M. A. Hayes, "Temporal Evolution of the Electron Distribution Function in an Electron Cyclotron Resonant Discharge", J. Appl. Phys. 70, 5306 (1991). here

M. R. Brown , D. M. Cutrer, and P. M. Bellan, "Motion and Equilibrium of a Spheromak in a Toroidal Flux Conserver", Phys. Fluids B3 , 1198 (1991). here

M. R. Brown , A. D. Bailey III, and P. M. Bellan, "Characterization of a Spheromak Plasma Gun: The Effect of Refractory Electrode Coatings", J. Appl. Phys. 69 , 6302 (1991). here

M. R. Brown , P. M. Bellan, C. W. Hartman, J. L. Eddleman, M. Gee, J. H. Hammer, B. G. Logan, R. W. Moir, H. S. McLean, A. A. Mirin, A. W. Molvik, W. M. Nevins, W. A. Newcomb, and D. E. Scumaker, "Tokamak Current Drive and Fueling by Compact Torus Injection and Acceleration of Compact Toroids for Other Fusion Applications", Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1990 (Proceedings of the 13th International Conference, Washington, D. C., 1990), Vol 3, IAEA, Vienna (1991), p. 611.

R. Breun, D. Brouchous, D. Diebold, R. Fonck, N. Hershkowitz, T. Intrator, Y. J. Kim, M. Kishinevsky, W. Li, R. Majeski, J. Pew, P. Probert, E. Y. Wang, Y. Wen, H. Che, M. Doczy, G. McKee, J.Sorensen, T. Tanaka, M. Vukovic, P. Bellan, and M. R. Brown , "An RF Heated Tokamak: Phaedrus-T", Fusion Technology 19 , 1327 (1991).

W. H. Matthaeus, L. Kline, S. Ghosh, and M. R. Brown , "Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamics, Pseudosound and Solar Wind Fluctuations", J. Geophys. Res. 96, A4 , 5421 (1991). here

M. R. Brown and P. M. Bellan, "Current Drive by Spheromak Injection into a Tokamak", Phys. Rev. Letters 64 , 2144 (1990). here

M. R. Brown and P. M. Bellan, "Spheromak Injection into a Tokamak", Phys. Fluids B2, 1306 (1990). here

K. Siegrist, M. R. Brown, and P. M. Bellan, "Simple, Low-Power LaB6 Cathode", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60 , 964 (1989). here

W. H. Matthaeus and M. R. Brown , "Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamics at Low Mach Number", Phys. Fluids 31 , 3634 (1988). here

D. Montgomery, M. R. Brown , and W. H. Matthaeus, "Density Fluctuation Spectra in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence", J. Geophys. Res. 92 A1 , 282 (1987). here

M. R. Brown , T.E. Sheridan, and M. A. Hayes, "Re-entrant Cavity as a Low-Power Plasma Source", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57 , 2957 (1986). here

M. A. Hayes and M. R. Brown , "The Contribution of Cyclotron Heating Induced Spatial Modulation of Electron Magnetization to Tokamak Current Drive", Phys. Fluids 29, 247 (1986). here

M. A. Hayes, M. R. Brown , M. A. Kasevich, and R. B. McCowan, "Electrostatic Magnetostatic Hybrid Probe for Measuring the Electron Distribution Function in a Magnetized Plasma", Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55 , 928 (1984). here